Nutcracker Syndrome

We provide a concise review of Nutcracker Syndrome with its history, incidence, clinical presentation and currently available diagnostic criteria and treatment options. This should help any clinician identify and better serve patients with rare venous disorders such as this…

EFSUMB 2020 Proposal for a Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound-Adapted Bosniak Cyst Categorization – Position Statement

The well-established Bosniak renal cyst classification is based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography determining the malignant potential of cystic renal lesions. Ultrasound has not been incorporated into this pathway. However, the development of ultrasound contrast agents coupled with the superior resolution of ultrasound makes it possible to redefine the imaging of cystic renal lesions…

Role of CEUS in Vascular Pathology

In recent years, the implementation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in clinical practice has opened new horizons in the arterial pathologies research field, since this technique is able to supply new sets of data that can be crucial in patient management. The main applications of CEUS in the arterial system are the detection, characterization, and follow-up of carotid plaques and endoleaks after EVAR…

Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Intestinal Fibrosis and Inflammation in Crohn’s Disease. The State of the Art

The evaluation of the degree of inflammation and fibrosis, intrinsic elements in intestinal wall damage of Crohn’s disease, is essential to individuate the extent of the lesions and the presence of strictures. This information will contribute to the choice of the appropriate therapeutic approach, the prediction of the response to therapy and the course of the disease…

Roadmap Consensus on Carotid Artery Plaque Imaging and Impact on Therapy Strategies and Guidelines: An International, Multispecialty, Expert Review and Position Statement

Current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of stroke in patients with carotid atherosclerosis are based on the quantification of the degree of stenosis and symptom status. Recent publications have demonstrated that plaque morphology and composition, independent of the degree of stenosis, are important in the risk stratification of carotid atherosclerotic disease…

A Review on Joint Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plaque Area Measurement in Ultrasound for Cardiovascular/Stroke Risk Monitoring: Artificial Intelligence Framework

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the top ten leading causes of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis disease in the arteries is the main cause of the CVD, leading to myocardial infarction and stroke. The two primary image-based phenotypes used for monitoring the atherosclerosis burden is carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque area (PA)…

Medical treatment strategies to reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality after carotid surgery

There is a paucity of high-quality evidence regarding what constitutes “optimal medical therapy” for the purposes of reducing morbidity/mortality after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). All patients should be prescribed antiplatelet therapy. Low-dose aspirin (75 to 325 mg) should be continued throughout the perioperative period and there is no evidence that higher doses confer additional benefit…

Second asymptomatic carotid surgery trial (ACST-2): a randomised comparison of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy

Among asymptomatic patients with severe carotid artery stenosis but no recent stroke or transient cerebral ischaemia, either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can restore patency and reduce long-term stroke risks. However, from recent national registry data, each option causes about 1% procedural risk of disabling stroke or death…

Optimization of duplex velocity criteria for diagnosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis: A report of the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) Vascular Testing Division Carotid Diagnostic Criteria Committee

Diagnostic criteria to classify severity of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis vary across vascular laboratories. Consensus-based criteria, proposed by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound in 2003 (SRUCC), have been broadly implemented but have not been adequately validated. We conducted a multicentered, retrospective correlative imaging study of duplex ultrasound versus catheter angiography for evaluation of severity of ICA stenosis…

Optimal Medical Management of Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis

Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) due to atherosclerosis is a risk factor for ipsilateral ischemic cerebrovascular events and cognitive impairment. The prognosis of ACS has improved over the past 4 decades due largely to improvements in medical management. Most patients with ACS can be managed without revascularization, but some patients with vulnerable plaque should be considered for revascularization…

Management of Patients with Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis May Need to Be Individualized: A Multidisciplinary Call for Action

The optimal management of patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is the subject of extensive debate. According to the 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines, carotid endarterectomy should (Class IIa; Level of Evidence: B) or carotid artery stenting may be considered (Class IIb; Level of Evidence: B) in the presence of one or more clinical/imaging characteristics that may be associated with an increased risk of late ipsilateral stroke…